从“Understanding by Design”的书本中，有两个关键词：“理解”、“逆向设计”是我们开始学习和探索的切入点：
In their article on science education, Smith and Siegel argue "that education aims at the imparting of knowledge: students are educated in part so that they may come to know things". While a student can know a lot about a particular subject, teachers globally are beginning to push their students to go beyond simple recall. This is where understanding plays an important role. The goal of Teaching fｏｒUnderstanding is to give students the tools to take what they know, and what they will eventually know, and make a mindful connection between the ideas. In a world that is filled with data, teachers are only able to help students learn a small number of ideas and facts. As such, it is important that we give students the tools needed to decipher and understand the ideas. This transferability of skills is at the heart of McTighe and Wiggins' technique. If a student is able to transfer the skills they learn in the classroom to unfamiliar situations, whether academic ｏｒnon-academic, they are said to truly understand.
Backward design is a method of designing educational curriculum by setting goals before choosing instructional methods and forms of assessment. Backward design of curriculum typically involves three stages:
1.Identify the results desired (big ideas and skills) What should the students know, understand, and be able to do? Consider the goals and curriculum expectations Focus on the "big ideas" (principles, theories, concepts, point of views, ｏｒthemes)
2.Determine acceptable levels of evidence that support that the desired results have occurred (culminating assessment tasks) What will teachers accept as evidence that student understanding took place?
Consider culminating assessment tasks and a range of assessment methods (observations, tests, projects, etc.)
3.Design activities that will make desired results happen (learning events) What knowledge and skills will students need to achieve the desired results?
Consider teaching methods, sequence of lessons, and resource materials
Backward design challenges "traditional" methods of curriculum planning. In traditional curriculum planning, a list of content that will be taught is created and/ｏｒselected.
 In backward design, the educatｏｒstarts with goals, creates ｏｒplans out assessments and finally makes lesson plans. Supporters of backward design liken the process to using a "road map".
 In this case, the destination is chosen first and then the road map is used to plan the trip to the desired destination. In contrast, in traditional curriculum planning there is no formal destination identified before the journey begins.
The idea in backward design is to teach toward the "end point" ｏｒlearning goals, which typically ensures that content taught remains focused and organized. This, in turn, aims at promoting better understanding of the content ｏｒprocesses to be learned fｏｒstudents. The educatｏｒis able to focus on addressing what the students need to learn, what data can be collected to show that the students have learned the desired outcomes (ｏｒlearning standards) and how to ensure the students will learn. Although backward design is based on the same components of the ADDIE model, backward design is a condensed version of these components with far less flexibility.
The importance of assessment
The primary starting point fｏｒbackward design is to become familiar with the standards/outcomes fｏｒthe grade level and curriculum being taught. The second part of curriculum planning with backward design is finding appropriate assessments. It can be difficult fｏｒ"traditional" educators to switch to this model because it is hard to conceptualize an assessment before deciding on lessons and instruction. The idea is that the assessments (formative and/ｏｒsummative) should meet the initial goals identified.
Wiggins and McTighe (2008) also utilize the "WHERE" approach during the assessment stage of the process.
- W stands fｏｒstudents knowing where they are heading, why they are heading there, what they know, where they might go wrong in the process, and what is required of them.
- H stands fｏｒhooking the students on the topic of study.
- E stands fｏｒstudents exploring and experiencing ideas and being equipped with the necessary understanding to master the standard/outcome being taught.
- R stands fｏｒproviding opportunities fｏｒstudents to rehearse, revise, and refine their work.
- E stands fｏｒstudent evaluation.
Here is a practical example of a 5th grade teacher developing a three-week unit on nutrition:
Stage 1: Identify desired results
Based on three curriculum expectations about nutrition (concepts about nutrition, elements of a balanced diet, and understanding eating patterns), the take-away message that the teacher wants his/her students to understand is "Students will use an understanding of the element of good nutrition to plan a balanced diet fｏｒthemselves and others".
Stage 2: Determine acceptable evidence
The teacher has created an authentic task in which students will design a 3-day meal plan fｏｒa camp that uses food pyramid guidelines. The goal is a tasty and nutritionally balanced menu.
Stage 3: Plan learning experiences and instruction
The teacher first considers the knowledge and skills that students will need in order to complete the authentic assessment. Specifically, students will need to know about different food groups, human nutritional needs (carbohydrates, proteins, sugars, vitamins, minerals etc.), and about what foods provide these needs. They will need to know how to read nutrition labels. Resources will be a pamphlet from the UDSA on food groups, the health textbook, and a video "Nutrition fｏｒYou". Teaching methods will include direct instruction, inductive methods, cooperative learning, and group activities.